At am, Hilton appeared inside the DJ booth and began waving to the crowd. Thousands of wide eyes gazed up at their pretty idol, in much the same way as the neon guys and gals at DC10 were keeping one eye focused on Hot Creations label boss Jamie Jones , who was unleashing a much deeper mantra across town at Paradise at exactly the same time.
These days, there are plenty of gods to choose from in Ibiza, but Paris Hilton remains one of the most controversial. You have to take sides. In March he was already correcting the first proofs;52 on 17 April he dedicated the treatise to Infante Isabella Clara Eugenia, praising her modesty and piety, and asserting that in the warlike situation her vows and prayers would prove as effective as the counsels and weapons of her husband.
Faces of the Reformation
The French and Spanish versions were published a few months later, also by Rutger Velpius. Although the name of the destinee is not mentioned, the topics discussed in the letter make it obvious that it was Numan. Both approbationes are inserted on f. I 3v, but unfortunately neither is dated. The dedicatory letter, which has already been discussed, was followed by a Praefatio ad Lectorem, in which the author made another attempt to protect himself.
In the Diva Hallensis,55 he anticipated possible reproofs against the subject of his choice: why set out upon unaccustomed paths, why touch transcendent matters? In his answer to the first objection, Lipsius affirmed that he was merely reporting the miraculous feats of the Virgin, without further elaborating on specific religious matters, in other words that he was keeping himself strictly within the bounds of historiography.
Bishops Miraeus and Hovius could vouch that not a single dot or dash was altered, except for reasons of style. In the praefatio of the Diva Sichemiensis, Lipsius confessed that he was even more attracted by this new subject, so nearby and so admired by all asunder [Fig. Lipsius also apologized for the lack of variation in the themes,58 and warned his reader that his style was not as flourished as in his other works: his purpose was none other than the glory of the Virgin. Itaque intra fines meos mansi et ipsum tituli mei atque inscriptionis agrum colui, id est Historiam scripsi. Erasmus, Adagia, 2, 5, 1.
One should not forget, however, that the purpose of the treatise was apologetic! The original, erased version was much sharper and was clearly written more or less as a challenge both to non-Catholics, who poked fun with his devotion to the Virgin, and to possible critics from his own side, who might object that, being a philologist and a philosopher, he nevertheless ventured into theology.
Hence it has many points in common with that of the Diva Hallensis. Lipsius further claimed that he only wanted to relate some of the miraculous feats of the Holy Virgin of Leuven, a subject never treated before, and pointed out that they were carefully noted down and witnessed in a register.
In the rethought version he merely explained his reasons for choosing precisely that subject. The Virgin of Leuven had granted numerous great blessings for about years. Her miracles, at first profuse, had gradually become scarce. Some were witnessed by people who were still living; others had been carefully attested: only a sceptic would show any doubts. A truly wise man, on the contrary, would simply believe without trying to understand.
Next comes the main part of the work. Author and printer preferred the same lay-out for both published Divae: the same fonts are used, the title is repeated in larger characters; then follows the header of the chapter in small capitals, with underneath an argumentum, a summary in italics.
Similar indications are given in the manuscript of the Diva Lovaniensis. The first chapters are preliminary; the actual narrative of the miracles begins in chapter 8 Div. In the three treatises Lipsius dwells upon the origin of the statue and on the church.
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In the printed Divae this is preceded by an etymological explanation of the name of the town and its geographical position, considered 59 Lipsius might have followed here the advice of his Augsburg friend Marcus Welser, cf. At the end the Diva Hallensis adds two extra chapters on the confraternity of the Holy Virgin, giving a list of the most important visitors and recalling the precious gifts they brought with them. In the Diva Sichemiensis less attention has been paid to the chronology—often there is no date, not even a year—which must be explained by the fact that the events included did all occur within the past three years.
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Lovanium: id est oppidi et academiae eius descriptio. Libri III Antwerp: Time and again, however, Lipsius warned his reader that he was not pursuing exhaustiveness, but rather preferred a representative selection instead of having his readers bored with yet another description of how a lame person was suddenly able to walk again. In an attempt to give an idea of the frequency and, at the same time, avoid monotony, the Diva Lovaniensis opens with a description of four miracles happening on the same day, 25 September chap.
Another way to enliven the account is stylistic: in the three treatises prose is interwoven with poetry, often iambic trimeters. In the Diva Hallensis, for instance, chapters 15—18 all discuss cases of children who died by suffocation, but were resuscitated by the intervention of the Virgin. The next chapter, still about the same theme, opens with apologies in prose for keeping to the same theme and proposes to enliven the account by using verses. BBr III, pp. Let us hear, but only a selection, that is, a few out of many and always carefully chosen. Audiamus, sed excerpta; id est, e pluribus pauca et iudicio semper eligenda.
Another example of his care to avoid endless repetitions can be found in Div. Mouchel Paris: — esp. For the present reader these lines are an interesting source with regard to social history. Regularly the geographical names are explained by a brief historical excursion, undoubtedly a complement from Lipsius to the official reports. These names are, of course, supposed to impress the reader by showing that the reputation of the Virgin had fanned out all over Brabant and even far across its borders.
Next follows the description of the infliction, often with details about its duration, its seriousness, the helplessness of physicians, and occasionally even a vain pilgrimage to other places of worship. In some cases the Virgin appears in a dream.
Several times, particularly in the Diva Hallensis, a religious person or a magistrate, was among the eyewitnesses. Afterwards masses are said; candles, ex votoes or votive tables are brought to the altar. The Diva Lovaniensis gives a warning that these promises should be kept: when the mother of a still-born child, which was revived, forgot about her pilgrimage, the poor baby was afflicted by a rupture and suffered terrible pains, until its mother remembered her vow and went to Leuven.
The wonders most frequently occurring are that lame or paralysed people can walk away unhindered, that a long lasting blindness or a case of epilepsy is cured, dumb people can speak again, and evil spirits are chased. Nonetheless, there still is a striking number of cases concerning youngsters, often still-born or drowned, in the Diva Hallensis, a reminder that the Virgin of Halle was especially invoked with regard to children and also implored by women, who wanted to get pregnant. It is, of course, much easier to bring forward conclusive evidence of the first category: relatives and neighbours can give testimony of the previous condition, physicians might have examined the patient.
Whereas the Diva Hallensis and the Diva Lovaniensis still have several almost parallel accounts of captives in remote corners 71 See, for instance, Div. Another example is Div.
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Here cases of apoplexy, paralysis and hernia predominate. The final chapter of the three treatises, written in prose and in verses, is a combination of the feats of the Virgin and praying. The Diva Hallensis ends with the poem in iambic trimeters in which Lipsius dedicated his silver pen to the statue; the Diva Sichemiensis concludes with a poem written in Sapphic stanzas imploring the Virgin to continue her favours and have mercy upon a country nearly succumbing under the burden of war.
Among the first to congratulate him with his first Virgin treatise was papal nuncio Ottavio Mirto Frangipani, who also underlined the importance of the work: although an account of the events, unusual as they were, was spread by rumours, more people in far-away countries would now be able to hear about it. Melaerts — C. Saerens eds. Balthasar Moretus did his utmost to have the author 79 Scil. Dusoir — J. De Landtsheer — D. Imhof eds. Still in February Lipsius had received a letter from Dominicus Baudius in Leiden urging him not to believe the rumour that Scaliger was the author of the poems cf.
I[usti] Lipsii Heylige Maghet van Halle. Hare weldaden ende Miraculen ghetrouwelick ende ordentlick uutgheschreven. Uut de Latijnsche in onse Nederlantsche tale overgeset deur eenen Lief-hebber ter eere sijns eenigen Salichmakers tot bespottinghe der Pauslicke Roomsche Afgoderije. Schinkel in Delft cf. But others sharpened their quill in his place. The theologian Anastasius Cochelet, a Carmelite, wrote a dialogue between Lipsius and a palaestrita director of a wrestling-school , countering point by point the attack of the Dissertatio de idolo Hallensi.
Lipsius agreed, advising him casually not to keep too close to the Latin text, since each language had its own genius. Yet he had his doubts whether Numan would find the time to translate his Diva Hallensis and, indeed, the Dutch translation was only issued in Here too, within one year three issues of copies each came from the press, two in-quarto and and one in-octavo at the end of The first preserved congratulatory letter seems to be from 84 Cf. It was immediately translated into Dutch. In his own preface Numan launched an attack against Van Oosterwijck.
La Nostre Dame de Hau.
Ses Bienfaicts et Miracles fidelement recueillis et arrengez en bel ordre par le tres-docte Iustus Lipsius [. Still the same year Claudius Dausqueius became the vindicator of both the Virgin of Scherpenheuvel and Lipsius with his D. Mariae Aspricollis qaumatouvrgou Scutum. Lipsi Scutum ab eodem Cl. Dausqueio, utrumque adversus Agricolae Thracii Satyricas Petitiones, presented as a dialogue between himself and Thomson.
ILE 05 07 De Backer A. Escripte en Latin par Iuste Lipse. In appendix is given a survey of the miracles which occurred in cult places with Virgin statues, cut from the oak of Scherpenheuvel, and particularly in Tournon.
The translator might be the Jesuit Pierre Reboul, who signed a dedicatory letter. The fact that hardly a decade later Lipsius of all people became the mouthpiece of the CounterReformation in the South tore open old sores in the Northern Provinces. That the Leuven humanist died soon afterwards gave them every occasion to boost their portrait of Lipsius as the faithful, devoted servant of the Church of Rome and even to claim him as the paladin of the Catholic camp, without paying too much attention to his merits as a scholar—philologist, ancient historian and philosopher—which had earned him a reputation throughout Europe.
The Promise of a Golden Age Brussels: Het Jeruzalem van de Lage Landen Leuven: Histoire des Miracles. Gedeeltelijk 16e en 17e eeuw Amsterdam: Nova eius Beneficia et Admiranda Antwerp: Beneficia eius et Miracula fide atque ordine descripta Antwerp: The Privy Council wrote to the town council asking whether, during the latest purge, Ortelius had been listed as a Lutheran, whether he had been disarmed, and whether he was still considered to be a heretic. The municipal authorities replied that Ortelius had never been recorded as a Lutheran and had always behaved in an orthodox Catholic manner.
However, they admitted that in January Ortelius had indeed been asked to surrender his weapons as part of the purge, but that the error was quickly discovered and his equipment returned.
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Ultimately, no charge was brought. His analysis was terse but acute, attempting to bring clarity to the seventy years of debate since Hessels and Rooses stated their position. Boumans was a skilled religious historian familiar with the complexity of religious allegiance and affiliation in sixteenth century Antwerp, but his study was seminal rather than definitive.