Manual Cross of Lanu (Trowenna Book 1)

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English / Year 7 / Literature / Creating literature

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Related Content. Editors: Anne Luyat and Francine Tolron. Editors: Serge Jaumain and Marc Maufort.

The essays collected here illustrate aspects of recent research conducted by graduate students in Canadian studies at various European universities. The methodological diversity displayed points to the very essence of the culture the contributors explore - what has been commonly termed the Canadian mosaic or, more recently, the Canadian kaleidoscope Janice Kulyk-Keefer. In analysing the many facets of this mosaic, the numerous images of this kaleidoscope, the contributors offer fresh and youthful reappraisals of traditional visions of Canadianness.

Editors: Peter H. Marsden and Geoffrey V. Studying postcolonial literatures in English can and indeed should make a human rights activist of the reader — there is, after all, any amount of evidence to show the injustices and inhumanity thrown up by processes of decolonization and the struggle with past legacies and present corruptions. Yet the human-rights aspect of postcolonial literary studies has been somewhat marginalized by scholars preoccupied with more fashionable questions of theory. The present collection seeks to redress this neglect, whereby the definition of human rights adopted is intentionally broad.

The volume reflects the human rights situation in many countries from Mauritius to New Zealand, from the Cameroon to Canada. At one point, Ihimaera puts the words of William Colenso into the mouth of his fictionalised real-life figure Hohepa Te Umuroa. They were discovered by Gracewood, who has a doctorate in comparative literature from Cornell University in the US and lives in New Haven, Connecticut, while she was looking for more information on Te Umuroa.

With Sinclair's book, some of the text is on Google Books, but not all of it, and I noticed a couple of familiar phrases, so I went back and matched those and then managed to get the book out of the Yale library as well so I could look at other pages, and I found a whole bunch of quotes that just lined up. Gracewood thought: "Okay, is there anything else in this novel that might have been insufficiently digested? After that, it was mainly a case of flipping through and finding passages that seemed extraordinarily detailed or particularly 'period' in their language and just randomly Googling.

In his email, Ihimaera says of the Victorian texts: "I fell in love with their language and phrasing and I did not feel that I could express their descriptions better! But the next day he says the Lamb passages were "unintended - they weren't supposed to be there like that" and that he should have gone through the book again to make sure they were totally integrated.

He says: "I think there are probably more pages of credits in this novel than any other that I've seen. So I really did read very thoroughly and I really did immerse myself over the years since when I first discovered this story and material. And, of course, the most difficult part is integrating that historical material within a creative context without it being too unpinned in the history.


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After all, this is a book that goes from Scotland to Wolverhampton to Rhodesia to New Zealand to Tasmania, so you ought to see my room, it was filled with books almost to the ceiling. The University of Auckland's guidelines on using the work or ideas of other people are laid out in its undergraduate and masters handbooks.

The guidelines for masters students state that: "In any thesis, research project portfolio, dissertation, assignment or project, unacknowledged copying or plagiarism is not acceptable and is treated as an examination offence. They define plagiarism as follows: "Plagiarism means using the work of others in preparing an assignment and presenting it as your own without explicitly acknowledging - or referencing where it came from. Plagiarism can also mean not acknowledging the full extent of indebtedness to a source [ Direct copying is definitely plagiarism.

Witi Ihimaera

Paraphrasing of another work without attribution is also plagiarism. Submitting someone else's unattributed or less than fully attributed work or ideas is not evidence of your own grasp of the material and cannot earn you marks. The university's academics are governed by ethical guidelines that cover research and publications, including major original creative works, such as novels. Under these guidelines, which deal with plagiarism, even "an honest error may constitute misconduct", unless the complaint is deemed "trivial".

However, the guidelines apply "only where the work in question is related to or is produced under the auspices of the university", according to a university spokesman. Ihimaera says: "There is not one rule for students and another for university staff.

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The general practice would be for me to advise the Dean of Arts and subject myself to arbitration. This I intend to do. He has also contacted Sinclair and the Wellington publisher of her book, Bridget Williams. Both are satisfied with his explanation and apology. For Sinclair, who teaches at Eastern Michigan University, the important thing is whether Te Umuroa's descendants along the Whanganui River are satisfied - Ihimaera having utilised her writing on the iwi, as well as the diary of one of them as it appears in her book.

As far as she is concerned, Prophetic Histories and the story it tells belong to them. That I was not cited is not an issue for me I've made it a policy to respect their wishes and cannot, after almost four decades, break that habit now. Ihimaera consulted the iwi before publication and showed them drafts of the novel, and Sinclair says: "It seems to me he did the right thing: he went up to see them, he brought the book up, the things that he did were absolutely according to protocol. And I don't see that it's my place as an American academic to even question that.

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Godwin, phoned in New York by the Listener , had not heard from Ihimaera, had not heard of Ihimaera, and did not want to comment without having read The Trowenna Sea. Most of the texts involved are 19th century and out of copyright, but if any of the other writers affected did choose to pursue Ihimaera for copyright infringement, they would have to demonstrate that "substantial taking" occurred, according to Professor Louise Longdin, director of the Centre for Intellectual Property Research at Auckland University of Technology.

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